!Epub ☪ How the Body Shapes the Way We Think: A New View of Intelligence ♃ PDF or E-pub free

!Epub ☫ How the Body Shapes the Way We Think: A New View of Intelligence ♗ An exploration of embodied intelligence and its implications points toward a theory of intelligence in general with case studies of intelligent systems in ubiquitous computing, business and management, human memory, and roboticsHow could the body influence our thinking when it seems obvious that the brain controls the body In How the Body Shapes the Way We Think, Rolf Pfeifer and Josh Bongard demonstrate that thought is not independent of the body but is tightly constrained, and at the same time enabled, by it They argue that the kinds of thoughts we are capable of have their foundation in our embodiment in our morphology and the material properties of our bodiesThis crucial notion of embodiment underlies fundamental changes in the field of artificial intelligence over the past two decades, and Pfeifer and Bongard use the basic methodology of artificial intelligence understanding by building to describe their insights If we understand how to design and build intelligent systems, they reason, we will better understand intelligence in general In accessible, nontechnical language, and using many examples, they introduce the basic concepts by building on recent developments in robotics, biology, neuroscience, and psychology to outline a possible theory of intelligence They illustrate applications of such a theory in ubiquitous computing, business and management, and the psychology of human memory Embodied intelligence, as described by Pfeifer and Bongard, has important implications for our understanding of both natural and artificial intelligence There is so much written about the brain, learning, teaching, and the mind There is so little that makes sense or allows prediction and control This book opens a unique door to the possibility to pout education on a scientific footing It will mostly be ignored by educators. Certe cose vanno prese in considerazione un po con le pinze non per una sbagliata esposizione esplicita delle informazioni, ma perch per la loro disposizione nel testo possono portare a trarre intuizioni e conclusioni sbagliate Quindi va affiancata una ricerca bibliografica autonoma.Per il resto, un buon testo divulgativo introduttivo alla embodied cognition. What is embodied cognition A view in which cognition isn t from the brain alone, but which involves the brain, the body, and the environment If you check the dictionary, you will find that cognition is described, in short, as using our minds in interaction with things to acquire knowledge and understanding We think, we experience, we sense these things.A philosopher of mind, Rolf Pfeifer has written a book on embodied cognition, titled How the Body Shapes the Way We Think In an interview wit What is embodied cognition A view in which cognition isn t from the brain alone, but which involves the brain, the body, and the environment If you check the dictionary, you will find that cognition is described, in short, as using our minds in interaction with things to acquire knowledge and understanding We think, we experience, we sense these things.A philosopher of mind, Rolf Pfeifer has written a book on embodied cognition, titled How the Body Shapes the Way We Think In an interview with Ginger Campbell, Brain Science Podcast, Shapiro observes that regarding the brain as intermediary between inside and outside my terms, not his tempts us to believe that the brain s function is isolated from the body s.Think of the senses as inputs to the motor systems as outputs This kind of thinking can lead to the famous thought experiment, the brain in a vat, in which the brain floats in a vat of chemicals, with electrodes attached to it They in turn lead from a computer, which simulate in the brain various experiences such as soaring high in an airplane, climbing Mt Everest, or having an orgasm Click here for a Mind Shadows article on that.Embodied cognition does not isolate brain from body and environment Our bodies shape how we sense and process information in our interactions with the world.To make a point on embodied cognition in his interview, Shapiro comments on the classic 1963 experiment with two kittens raised in total darkness by Alan Hein and Richard Held Once in a while lights were turned on, with one kitten in one basket with holes The kitten in it could walk, pulling the other who could not no holes The critical point is this both kittens those pulling and those being pulled saw the same surroundings However, the pulled kittens were passive participants Their brains didn t use their motor systems as they experienced the environment Apparently, as a result the pulled kitten remained effectively blind This was tried repeatedly with various sets of kittens The pulled felines could see but their brains didn t know how to interpret the sensory input The lesson from this is that the brain is intimately connected to the body and the environment It is part of the system, but not the whole Selected for the Cognitive Science Reading Discussion Group in March 2011 Selected for the Cognitive Science Reading Discussion Group in March 2011 i see the book is good The authors discuss intelligence from different prespective that not many researchers do They discuss that morphology how body is shaped and how the object moves is an important part while invistigating intelligence. It is common feeling that intelligence is one of the last features that seem to stand to mark humans in comparison with lesser entities The rise of putative machines and robots that hint at overshawoding such statement is then considered, by some, as the next frontier of anthropocentric nihilism, by others as the welcome beginning of the rise of trans humans in the jargon of Kurzweil feeded believers in Singularity As it is set so far, anyway, this perturbing perspective seem to be grounded It is common feeling that intelligence is one of the last features that seem to stand to mark humans in comparison with lesser entities The rise of putative machines and robots that hint at overshawoding such statement is then considered, by some, as the next frontier of anthropocentric nihilism, by others as the welcome beginning of the rise of trans humans in the jargon of Kurzweil feeded believers in Singularity As it is set so far, anyway, this perturbing perspective seem to be grounded in frail foundations said better, on very strong and yet narrow and possibly mislead conceptions about the nature itself of intelligence, its origin and how it can be emulated, reproduced if not enhanced Gelernter s inspiring and thoughtful The muse in the machine provided some early warning to mainstream artificial intelligence, noting how computation only processes are bound to just scratch the surface of what intelligence with particular emphasis on creativity and associativity, in his case is and can output Pfeifer and Bongard purport a far deeper reaching assault on what has come to be known half mockingly as good olf fashioned AI GOFAI that is, the classic view that intelligence is the sole result of symbol processing based on internal representations of solution spaces The authors build their arguments on over 20 years of counterstream research started over by revolutionary MIT s AI grey eminence Rodney Brooks and currently spread across many institutions particularly Japan where the actual interlacing of human and artificial entities has basically always been culturally welcomed, as opposed to Western cultural biases toward full control by natural products Brooks spawned this rapidly growing and extremely promising field of research with provoking papers titled Intelligence without Reason brilliant pun intended and Intelligence without Representation The key to the new paradigm is the centrality of embodiment in processes that are normally assumed to be cognitive The body is, in short, essential to intelligence, and abstract entities are bound not to reach comparable level of performance nor intelligence with as little resources as embodied ones This perspective was supported by and in turn directed much attention toward the study of social, interacting animals like birds, ants, bees and the likes It cuts through an old line of thought which has always seen the brain as the exclusive center for high level cognitive processes and such processes as simply based on symbolic computations, in principle reproducible by machines as abstract as to be even unconnected to the real world Such idealism is implicit in Turing s landmark works of 1930 s which directly inspired the architectures of computers, whose spirit is to a fair extent kept unchanged till today More importantly, it is deeply rooted in the common understanding of intelligence itself, including memory, creativity, plasticity, evolution and development Brooks rejected many if not all such assumptions, and started looking from an opposite,humble and bottom up perspective by proposing the subsumption architecture for controlling intelligent looking robots, and forging impressive slogans such as The world is its own best model Pfeifer and Bongard, two of the main players of today in embodiment, develop the implications of such momentous shift in focus by recalling the current landscape of AI and challenging the implicit and explicit assumptions by showing how the presence of a material, physics compliant body is unavoidable and central for all kind of intelligent behavior They do not and still can not propose a solidified and all encompassing theory, still they provide and exemplify at length many design principles for both individual and collectives of embodied agents, and for short to long term time frames Ecological balance, cheap design, design for emergence, sensory motor coordination, frame of reference, redundancy, multiple parallel and loosely coupled processes, morphological computation and evolution are notable examples of such principles, which they claim can in fact pertain and give novel insights to all agents given a proper embodiment including nodes in ubiquitous computing networks, and firms The principles are introduced in the first two of the four parts of the book, which turn out to be the most interesting and absorbing in hindsight The third part is in fact devoted to exemplifications ubiquitous technology, firm management, memory and daily life robotics and, with the exception of the chapter on memory perhaps, it indulges in excessive verbosity and re statements of at this point acquired notions The forth part recapitulates the content of the book pretty nicely and lucidly, without loosing the sense of urge for an enormous amount of new research to be conducted and the excitement for the potential that the embodied perspective can still provide for deeper understanding of what intelligence and eventually life, both in their biologic and artificial versions is and how it could otherwise be It notably ends with a suspended excerpt from a taoist inspired novel The book is very well documented and referenced We only feel puzzled at the remarkable absence of mention of the powerful analysis by synthesis methodology developed by the group of Lipson who is still nonetheless cited several times for other works in the book also before the publication of the book with particular reference to Zykov s co evolution of the control and of the representation of the body by an actual four legged robot It is also illustrated by several cartoons and pictures, and features boxes for additional in depth discussion of selected topics Though much focus is devoted to Pfeifer s own AI lab at ETH Zurich, groundbreaking works from most active groups are precisely mentioned and illustrated e.g walking robots, delayed reward learning with artificial mouse in T mazes, entertaining and healing robots, robots with facial expressions, sort of chimeras The book addresses curious laymen with a hunch for provocative thought and counterfactuals It s a book against the grain written in a plain though at times too redundant style yes, it could be made a bit shorter It inscribes to that extremely valuable set of books that informedly point outside the mainstream forlight on dark issues Very recommended